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Different Types of Washers

  • Author:Joanne Qu
  • Release on:2023-11-30

Introduction of Washers

A washer may be a disk formed plate (made of metal, rubber, or plastic) used to garrison the joints from ill-use through adjustment method and to disseminate the load equally below the bolt and nut (i.e., rib fasteners).

Generally, it operates as a spacer or seal. On the opposite hand, Bolt joins two surfaces. It possesses threads and a planate head.

Different Types of Washers

Washers are mainly of 3 types:

  • Plain Washers

  • Spring Washers

  • Locking Washers

#1. Plain Washers

Plain washers which equally distribute the load through a wide area and prevent damage to the surface or provide insulation. By using it, the surface below the bolts or nuts becomes smooth.

#a. Torque Washer

These include a square shaped hole that prevents the bolt from spinning and therefore helps in the adjustment of it. They are usually utilized in carpentry.

#b. Flat Washer

These are slender, flat, circular washer with a hole at the centre (ring-shaped). Except dividing the load equally, it conjointly provides support to little head screws. A flat washer is what the general public thinks about a standard washer. They are sensible for general use.

#c. Fender Washer

These have a larger outer diameter (i.e., the opening at the centre is small). Except for dividing the load equally, they are conjointly used for automobile, plumbing, electrical functions, sign board flex, and banner fixing functions. It is sometimes a skinny metal. They are named for their general use of automobile fenders.

#d. Finishing or Countersunk Washer (90°/120°)

Finishing or Countersunk Washer (90°/120°)

These are used for the planate head is countersunk screws that provide a flush surface.

#e. Shoulder Washer

These have a shoulder sort form. They’re in the main used for insulating electrical wires and are found in nylon, fibre-glass, PCTFE, PTFE, etc.

#f. C-washer

These are used to slide in and out of bolt or shaft. These appear as if a flat washer, however, it’s a slot cut from the middle hole to create a “C” form.

The C-Washer used at any time may have to be adjusted or replaced while not removing the fastener.

#2. Spring Washers

Spring washers that have axial flexibility and provide an axial load to fasteners to stop fastening or loosening from vibrations or shock.

There are many types of spring washers. Each has its own benefits. Single pattern spring washer, normal pattern spring washer, double pattern spring washer, grip pattern spring washer, and beam pattern spring washer are the structures of spring washer. They follow Hooke’s Law.


F= Load

x= Deflection/Displacement

k= Spring Rate/Spring Constant

#a. Belleville or Conical Washer

These are helpful to produce strength throughout adverse thermal enlargement or contraction. They bear a little quantity of deflection, counting on height-thickness magnitude.

#b. Dome Spring Washer

These have extreme load capability with very little deflection vary. They possess ground curves and have planate load-bearing surfaces. The dome spring washers are the same as a Belleville washer, however, with rounded sides.

#c. Wave Spring Washer

These possess medium load capability, and deflection vary. They are usually used as cushion-springs and spacers. These kinds of washers rotate in 2 directions, forming a wave-like form.

#d. Finger Spring Washer

These steel washers are used to handle noise, excess wear, vibrations as they decrease skidding wear. They possess a good balance between strength (well-distributed load points) and suppleness. The finger spring washers include three sickle-shaped flanges.

#c. Crescent / Curved Spring Washer

These give support a little hundred by undergoing Brobdingnagian quantity of deflection. These have linear load-deflection options that compel them to be used for load athletics products.

These washers appear as if flat washers that are somewhat sickle-shaped to grant lighter pressure and maintain flexibility.

#3. Locking Washers

Locking washers which garrison fastening or loosening by preventing unscrewing rotation of the fastening device. (Locking washers are sometimes also referred to as spring washers).

Thus, this washer garrison the nut & bolts from getting loose.

#a. Helical/split Lock Washer

These provide further pre-load on screws, therefore leading to a shock-absorption method. Split lock washers are non-continuous rings that tilt every finish slightly outside in opposite directions.

#b. External Tooth Lock Washer

These are used to resist the loosening of wacky & bolts. They’re used in conjunction with head screws. Their teeth bite to a sexual union surface and forestall compression force.

The external tooth lock ring provides the most torsional resistance. It’s used to lock deep-headed fasteners into place.

#c. Internal Tooth Lock Washer

These perform a similar action because of the previous one. Their teeth conjointly absorb vibration. It’s used to lock shallow-headed fasteners into place.

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